Appendicular skeleton - bones and bone markings Study Guide

 

 

 

 

Bones of Pectoral Girdle - very mobile, but not very strong

 

Clavicle - "collarbone"

 

 

Acromial end - broad flat; articulates with scapula

 

 

Sternal end - triangular (looks sawed off); articulates with sternum

 

Scapula - "shoulder blade"

 

 

Glenoid fossa - shallow depression where humerus articulates with the scapula

 

 

Acromion process - projection over shoulder joint; posterior side of scapula; articulates with clavicle

 

 

Coracoid process - projection on anterior side of scapula; attachment for short head of biceps muscle

 

 

Spine - large ridge across posteriori surface of scapula

 

 

Infraspinous fossa - depression on the posterior surface of the scapula inferior to the spine

 

 

Supraspinous fossa - depression on the posterior surface of scapula superior to the spine

 

 

Subscapular fossa - deep, smooth anterior surface of the scapula

 

 

Suprascapular notch - allows suprascapular nerve & vessels to pass


 

Appendicular skeleton - bones and bone markings

 

Bones of the Upper Limb

 

Humerus - bone extending from shoulder to elbow

 

 

Head - smooth, round proximal surface; articulates with glenoid fossa of the scapula

 

 

Anatomical neck - rim around base of head

 

 

Surgical neck - region between shaft & proximal end of bone

 

 

Greater tubercle - Prominent knoblike projection on lateral side of bone just distal to anatomical neck

 

 

Lesser tubercle - Smaller knoblike projection on anterior side of bone just distal to anatomical neck

 

 

Intertubercular groove - groove between greater & lesser tubercles; lets one tendon of biceps pass

 

 

Deltoid tuberosity - Low lump on lateral side, about 1/3 of the way down; attachment for deltoid muscle

 

 

Capitulum - Round condylar surface on lateral side of distal humerus; articulates with head of radius

 

 

Radial fossa - Depression proximal to the capitulum where the radial head fits when elbow is bent

 

 

Trochlea - Spool-shaped condylar surface on medial side of distal humerus; articulates with trochlear notch of the ulna

 

 

Coronoid fossa - Depression on anterior side of distal humerus into which coronoid process of the ulna fits when the elbow is flexed (bent)

 

 

Olecranon fossa - Depression on posterior side of distal humerus into which the olecranon process of the ulna fits when the elbow is extended (straightened)

 

 

Medial & lateral epicondyles - ridges on distal humerus from which forearm muscles originate

 

Ulna - "near little finger" "crescent wrench"; forms elbow joint with the humerus

 

 

Olecranon process - heavy process at extreme proximal & posterior end of ulna

 

 

Coronoid process - thinner process on anterior surface of bone; helps hold ulna onto humerus by partially surrounding the trochlea of the humerus

 

 

Trochlear notch - between olecranon & coronoid processes; articulates with trochlea of humerus

 

 

Radial notch - smooth depression on lateral side of proximal ulna against which the head of radius rotates

 

 

Head - Small partially rounded distal end that articulates with the radius & wrist bones

 

 

Styloid process - small process protruding from medial side of head to which wrist ligaments attach

 

Appendicular skeleton - bones and bone markings

 

 

Bones of the Upper Limb

 

Radius - rotates around the ulna, near the thumb

 

 

Head - Proximal, drum-shaped end; articulates with capitulum of humerus & radial notch of ulna

 

 

Neck - narrow region just distal to the head

 

 

Radial tuberosity - large lump on anteromedial surface just distal to neck; attachment for biceps

 

 

Styloid process - point on lateral side of distal end of the bone to which wrist ligaments attach

 

 

Ulnar notch - indentation at distal end of bone into which the ulna fits

 

Carpals - "wrist bones"; 8 short bones arranged in 2 irregular rows of four bones each

 

Metacarpals - "palm"; 5 small, long bones, numbered 1 to 5 from thumb to little finger

 

Phalanges - 14 small, long bones of the fingers (3 per finger & 2 of the thumb)

 

Pollex - thumb; digit # 1; has only proximal and distal phalanges

 

Other fingers are numbered 2-5; have distal, medial, & proximal phalanges


 

Appendicular skeleton - bones and bone markings

 

 

 

 

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle - 3 fused coxae. Each coxal bone consists of the ischium, ilium, & pubis that are fused in adults

 

Acetabulum - Depression into which the head of the femur articulates

 

Obturator foramen - Large hole in the inferior half of the coxa through which nerves & vessels pass

 

Ilium - large, flat superior region of the coxal bone; articulates with the sacrum, forming the sacroiliac joint

 

 

Iliac crest - Superior border of the coxa

 

 

Iliac fossa - Large depression occupying most of the superior, anterior half of the coxa

 

 

Gluteal lines - Lines on posterior surface of the ilium where gluteal muscles attach

 

 

Greater sciatic notch - deep notch on the posterior margin of the coxa where sciatic nerve passes

 

 

Auricular surface - ear-shaped articular surface where coxa joins the sacrum (sacroiliac joint)

 

Ischium - Posterior, inferior portion of coxa

 

 

Ischial ramus - Portion that extends inferiorly to form part of the wall of the obturator foramen & joining the inferior pubic ramus anteriorly

 

 

Ischial spine - prominence at inferior margin of the greater sciatic notch

 

 

Lesser sciatic notch - Small indentation in posterior border of the coxa just inferior to ischial spine

 

 

Ischial tuberosity - Large knob of bone to which several thigh muscles attach; you sit on it

 

Pubis - anterior, inferior portion of coxa

 

 

Pubic symphysis - point of articulation between the two coxa anteriorly; pad of fibrocartilage connects the 2 pubic bones

 

 

Pubic arch - inverted V formed by 2 pubic bones


 

Appendicular skeleton - bones and bone markings

 

 

 

 

Bones of lower limb

 

Femur - largest & heaviest bone of the body

 

 

Head - articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis

 

 

Fovea capitis - small pit in medial side of head to which a ligament of the hip attaches

 

 

Neck - thin portion that connects the head to the shaft

 

 

Greater trochanter - large process on lateral side of proximal end of the bone to which gluteal (hip) muscles attach

 

 

Lesser trochanter - Process on posterior side of proximal end of bone to which one muscle attaches

 

 

Gluteal tuberosity - projection inferior to greater trochanter on posterior side; gluteal muscle attaches

 

 

Intertrochanteric crest - Posterior ridge connecting the greater & lesser trochanters

 

 

Intertrochanteric line - Anterior line connecting the greater & lesser trochanters

 

 

Linea aspera - ridge on posterior side of the bone to which several thigh muscles attach

 

 

Medial & lateral condyles - rounded smooth articular surfaces where the femur articulates with tibia

 

 

Intercondylar fossa - deep groove between the condyles where the cruciate ligaments attach

 

 

Medial & lateral epicondyles - small ridges on distal end where muscles attach

 

 

Patellar groove - smooth articular indented surface where femur articulates with the patella


 

Appendicular skeleton - bones and bone markings

 

 

 

 

 

Bones of lower limb

 

 

Tibia - weight bearing (larger) bone of lower leg

 

 

 

Medial & lateral condyles - flat smooth surfaces with which the femur articulates

 

 

 

Intercondylar eminence - crest between the condyles where the cruciate ligaments attach

 

 

 

Tibial tuberosity - knot on the anterior, proximal surface where the patellar ligament attaches

 

 

 

Anterior crest - sharp prominent ridge running inferiorly along anterior border of the bone

 

 

 

Medial malleolus - large process of the distal, medial side of the bone

 

 

Fibula - "little lie" sticklike, non-weight bearing bone

 

 

 

Head - proximal enlargement; articulates with lateral side of the proximal tibia

 

 

 

Neck - narrow area just distal to the head

 

 

 

Lateral malleolus - enlargement on the distal, lateral side of the bone

 

 

Patella - sesamoid bone encased in patellar ligament, apex points down; "knee cap"

 

 

Tarsals - seven bones that make up the posterior half of the foot

 

 

 

Talus - on top, articulates with the tibia; carries the weight

 

 

 

Calcaneus - heel to which calf muscles attach

 

 

Metatarsals - five small, long bones; distal portion of the foot

 

 

Phalanges - 14 of the toes

 

 

Hallux - great toe with only 2 phalanges